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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 280-287

Myopia: Current concepts and review of literature

1 Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Services, Puducherry, India
2 Cornea and Refractive Services, Aravind Eye Hospital, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bharat Gurnani
Aravind Eye Hospital, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjosr.tjosr_85_20

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Myopia is the most common cause of refractive error in children. It is the most common ocular disorder worldwide. Apart from genetic factors, age and environmental factors have also been found to be closely associated as predictors of myopia. A comprehensive literature search was on online platforms using terms Myopia review, onset, progression, treatment, control, updates, bifocals, Atropine, and Orthokeratology. All the relevant articles published in English in last 10 years were analyzed and included. Excessive near work and prolonged screen usage have been proven as definite risk factors apart from genetics. Role of Vitamin D and outdoor activities are still having a controversial stand. Myopia treatment has come a long way from glasses/contact lenses to advanced minimally invasive refractive procedures such as femtosecond-assisted procedures and small incision lenticule extraction. With tremendous improvement in technology and increased dependence on digital devices, control of myopia progression remains a big challenge. Use of bifocals, progressive glasses, rigid contact lenses, and soft bifocals lenses have been studied widely. These all measures seem to do well in initial years, but long-standing results are not encouraging. The results with low-dose atropine have been convincing, but long-term follow-up results are still awaited.

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