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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-22

The clinical and risk profile of presenile cataract in a semi-urban population of South India

1 Department of Ophthalmology, ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Lily Daniel
No. 211, Annammal Road, Thiruverkadu Co-operative Nagar, Thiruverkadu, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjosr.tjosr_162_20

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Background: The aim of this study was to assess the morphological characteristics of presenile cataract and analyze its risk profile in a semi-urban population in a South Indian state. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study was conducted in the Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology at a University Teaching Hospital, Chennai, from June 2018 to May 2019. Eighty-two consecutive study participants underwent detailed medical history, ocular examination, and blood investigations such as fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, post prandial blood sugar, hemoglobin, blood urea, serum creatinine, serum calcium, thyroid function tests (TFT) and Electrocardiogram (ECG). Data analysis was done using International Business Machines, United States of America, Statistical Package for the Social Science, (IBM, US, SPSS), version 20. Results: A female predominance of 69.5% was noted. The mean age was 43.8 ± 7 years. Presenile cataract was higher in the age group of 41–49 years (odds ratio = 6.55). Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) was found in 65 eyes (39.6%), grade 2 nuclear sclerosis in 42 eyes (25.06%), and cuneiform cataract in 22 eyes (13.4%). The risk profile in presenile cataract was hypocalcemia (54.9%), diabetes mellitus (50%), and hypertension (17.07%). Hypertriglyceridemia was found in 22% of diabetics (P = 0.026). 25.6% was idiopathic. Conclusion: PSC was the predominant type of presenile cataract in this semi-urban population group. Patients with hypocalcemia and diabetes are significantly at risk in developing presenile cataract. Diabetics with hypertriglyceridemia have a higher risk.

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