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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 137-147

Retinal vasculitis: An update with our experience

1 Department of Ocular Pathology, Sankara Nethralya, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Suvi Eye Hospital and Lasik Laser Centre, Kota, Rajasthan, India
3 Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreo-Retinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jyotirmay Biswas
Department of Ocular Pathology, Sankara Nethralya, Medical Research Foundation, 41 College Road, Chennai - 600 006, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjosr.tjosr_41_21

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Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory condition affecting the retinal vessels. It can occur due to several etiologies and spectrum of other ocular inflammatory conditions. It can occur as an isolated idiopathic condition, as a complication of infective or neoplastic disorders, or in association with systemic inflammatory disease. The various known etiologies have been discussed here with their characteristic features. Etiological diagnosis of retinal vasculitis can be challenging. Clinical examination, tailored laboratory investigations and multimodal imaging with fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, B scan ultrasonography and in recent years widefield fundus fluorescein angiogram, imaging aids in the early diagnosis, monitoring and provides newer insights about these diseases. Newer treatment modalities and therapies such as immunomodulators and biologics have been added to the armamentarium against these sight-threatening conditions. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and laser photocoagulation are particularly beneficial to arrest the neovascularization process. The diagnosis of vasculitis may uncover an unknown underlying systemic cause. Early, effective, and prompt management can be vision saving and can minimize comorbidities. We feel that there is a necessity to update our knowledge on existing and newer trends in diagnosis, investigations, and management of retinal vasculitis. This review focuses on some of the basic concepts related to retinal vasculitis with an update.

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