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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 160-163

A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of computer vision syndrome and dry eye in computer operators


Department of Ophthalmology, Jaipur National University Institute for Medical Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission23-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication24-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sanjeev Verma
148, Khawas Ji Ka Bagh, Durgapura, Tonk Road, Jaipur - 302 018, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/tjosr.tjosr_173_20

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  Abstract 


Aim: To study the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and dry eyes in computer operators. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at teaching institute. Hundred participants were included in our study according to the inclusion criteria. Questionnaire was prepared to ask symptoms of CVS. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), refraction, Schirmer's test 1, and tear film break-up time (TBUT) were performed. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The prevalence of CVS was 74%. In the study population, 61 were male and 39 were female. Mean age was 29.58 years (7.85). Most of the participants were of age 21–30 years. Depending on the working hours, most of the participants (37.84%) were working for 4–8 h. About 37.84% of participants were working for 4–8 h. The most common eye complaint was eye strain. According to the OSDI score, mild dry eye was present in 23 individuals and moderate dry eye was present in 41 individuals. According to Schirmer's test 1, dry eye was present in 59% in the right eye and 58% in the left eye. According to TBUT, dry eye was present 59% in the right eye and 57% in the left eye. Dry eye was diagnosed in 59 (59.0%) individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence of CVS has increased due to the increased use of computer in our daily life. Its prolonged use causes dry eyes and inefficiency in their working, though most computer users are unaware of this fact. Hence, a lot of work has to be done to aware the community about the disease.

Keywords: Computer vision syndrome, dry eye, ocular surface disease index, refraction, Schirmer's test 1, tear film break-up time


How to cite this article:
Verma S, Midya U, Gupta S, Shukla Y. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of computer vision syndrome and dry eye in computer operators. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res 2021;59:160-3

How to cite this URL:
Verma S, Midya U, Gupta S, Shukla Y. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of computer vision syndrome and dry eye in computer operators. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 5];59:160-3. Available from: https://www.tnoajosr.com/text.asp?2021/59/2/160/319276




  Introduction Top


Computer has become a very important part of our daily life. Almost whole day people have to work on it and due to long working hours, it causes ocular and nonocular symptoms. Computer work is very strainful for the eyes as the image on computer screen is made up of tiny dots and we have to focus and refocus continuously for a clearer image and to make clear image eyes have to focus and refocus continuously.[1] Common eye complaints are eye strain, redness of eyes, dry eyes, tiredness, itching, blurring, or double vision.[2] The blink rate is reduced and corneal exposure time is increased leading to precipitation of dry eye in them due to the poor quality of the tear film.[3] Ocular symptoms can be classified under four categories: Asthenopic, ocular surface related, visual, and extraocular.[4] Symptoms increase with the duration of work on computer.[5] Somatic disorders depression and obsession are observed.[4],[5],[6],[7] The accommodative amplitude has been significantly reduced.[8] Accommodative infacility is the most common problem.[9],[10] Myopic shift[11] and transient myopia have also been reported in computer operators.[12] The incidence of dry eye has been reported to be 10.1%–21.5% in a study done in Japan.[13] Mean blink rate is 22/min which reduces to only 7/min in the computer users.[14] Prolonged exposure of computer screen causes burning, dryness, heaviness, and grittiness of eyes leading to ocular surface abnormalities. In one of the studies conducted by Schlote T, Schirmer 1, tear break-up time, and jones tests were not significantly affected during computer use.[15]

The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and dry eye in computer operators.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional study was conducted at a teaching institute from February 20, 2020 to March 15, 2020, in which 100 computer operators who work on computer for at least 3 h daily were included in this study. Prior permission was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Diagnosis of CVS was based on the presence of symptoms of CVS either continuously or intermittently in the past 1 year for at least 1 week.[16] Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire was used to evaluate the symptoms of dry eyes in computer users. The questionnaire contains 12 questions and has three subscales including ocular symptoms, vision-related functions, and environmental factors. Total score was calculated which ranges from 0 to 100 and categorized as normal, mild, moderate, and severe dry eye. History of demographic details, use of spectacles, knowledge of CVS, ergonomics, and preventive measures taken by the patient were noted. In all the patients, complete ocular examination was performed including visual acuity, refraction, Schirmer's test 1, tear film break-up time (TBUT), slit-lamp examination, and intraocular pressure and fundus examination by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Diagnosis of dry eye was made on the basis of OSDI score, Schirmer's test 1 value <10 mm, and TBUT value <10 s.

Schirmer's test 1 was performed without anesthesia. Whatman 41 filter paper strip kept in the lower fornix at the junction of medial two-third and lateral one-third. After 5 min wetting of the filter paper was measured. Value >15 mm was considered as normal. Value 5–10 mm was suggestive of moderate to mild dry eye and value <5 mm was considered as severe dry eye.

TBUT is defined as the interval between a last complete blink and first randomly distributed dry spot on the cornea. About 2% fluorescein sodium dye is was instilled in the conjunctival sac and examine under cobalt blue light of slit lamp. Value 15–35 mm was considered as normal and <10 mm was considered as dry eyes.

They were divided into two groups, Group A (n = 74) individuals having complaints of CVS and Group B (n = 26) individuals who did not have complaints of CVS.

Inclusion criteria

Age >18 years, duration of computer work >3 h/day for the past 1 year.

Exclusion criteria

Age <18 years, duration of computer work <3 h/day and for <1 year, inflammation and infections of the eye or any congenital or acquired disorders of the eye.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was done by fisher's test and Chi-square test wherever suitable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


Hundred computer operators were included in the current study. The prevalence of CVS was found to be 74%. In the study population, 61 were male and 39 were female [Table 1]. Mean age in the study group was 29.58 years (7.85). Most of the participants (60.81%) were in the age group between 21 and 30 years [Table 2]. The study group was divided into two Groups A and B. In Group A, individuals having complaints of CVS were included and in Group B individuals who did not have complaints of CVS were included in this study.: Depending upon the working hours 29.73% of individuals were working <4 h. About 37.84% individuals were working 4–8 h and 32.43% individuals were working >8 h. Depending upon the working hours most of the participants (37.84%) [Table 3]. Most common eye complaint was eye strain, present in 58 patients [Table 4] and [Figure 1]. According to the OSDI score mild dry eye was present in 23 individuals and moderate dry eye was present in 41 individuals [Table 5]. According to Schirmer's test 1, dry eye was present in 59% and 58% in right and left eye, respectively [Table 6]. There was no significant difference in the value of Schirmer's test between two eyes (P = 0.99). Similarly, based on TBUT, dry eye was present in 59% and 57% in right and left eye, respectively. Fifty-nine percentage in the right eye and 57% in the left eye [Table 7]. This difference was again found insignificant in between two eyes (P = 0.88). Dry eye was diagnosed in 59 (59.0%) patients [Table 8]. The association between CVS and dry eye is considered to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Symptoms were more severe in the patients who were noncompliant to prescribed spectacles.
Table 1: Gender and computer vision syndrome

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Table 2: Distribution of computer vision syndrome patients according to age group

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Table 3: Computer vision syndrome depending upon the working hours

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Table 4: Presenting complaints

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Figure 1: Presenting complaints of the patients

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Table 5: Ocular surface disease index score in computer operators

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Table 6: Schirmer's test 1 in computer operators

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Table 7: Tear film break-up time in computer operators

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Table 8: Dry eye and computer vision syndrome

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  Discussion Top


The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CVS and dry eye in computer operators. The prevalence of CVS was 74%. Similar results were obtained by Talwar et al.,[17] and Iwakiri et al.,[18] who reported 76% and 72.1% prevalence in their study group. In our study, males were more (n = 61) as compared to females (n = 39) [Table 1]. This was similar to as reported by Anjila et al.[19] in whom study males were 64% and females were 36%. About 60.86% of our patients having CVS were in the age group 21 years to 30 years [Table 2]. Similar results were obtained by Talwar et al.,[17] in their study 58.5% of individuals were in 21–30 years. CVS was more (37.84%) in individuals working 4–8 h every day [Table 3]. Talwar et al. concluded the same results. They reported that computer users who work 4–8 h every day were more symptomatic (36.8%).[17]

Most common ocular complaint was eye strain, present in 58% individuals [Table 4] and [Figure 1]. Similar results were obtained by Soumya et al.,[20] they have reported eye strain in 53.9% of individuals. On the basis of OSDI 23 (23%), individuals had mild dry eye and 41 (41%) had moderate dry eye. Similar results were obtained by mark Rosenfield et al. They reported 21% mild, 12% moderate, and 18% severe dry eye according to OSDI data.[21]

On the basis of Schirmer's test, dry eye was present in 59% in the right eye and 58% in the left eye [Table 6]. We can say that both the eyes are equally affected as the difference in Schirmer's reading was insignificant in the two eyes. On the basis of TBUT dry eye was present 59% in the right eye and 57% in the left eye [Table 7]. This was also an insignificant difference between the two eyes. Overall, dry eyes were present in 59% of patients. The association between CVS and dry eye is considered to be statistically significant [Table 8]. Similar results were reported in the study conducted by Anjila et al.[19] In their study, dry eyes according to Schirmer's test was present in there study dry was present according to Schirmer's test was 59% in the right eye and 57% in the left eye and according to TBUT 58% in the right eye and 55% in the left eye. Our study has certain limitations such as more number of participants would have given better results. Various tear film staining methods could have also been employed.


  Conclusion Top


The prevalence of CVS has increased due to increased use of computer in our daily life. Its prolonged use causes dry eyes and inefficiency in their working, though most computer users are unaware of this fact. Hence, a lot of work has to be done to aware the community about the disease.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]



 

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