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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 134

Can ocular biomarkers become game-changers in the prior diagnosis of various diseases?

1 Intern, Dr NTR Univerity of Health Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Intern, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission04-Oct-2021
Date of Decision12-Nov-2021
Date of Acceptance05-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication22-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. L V Simhachalam Kutikuppala
Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram - 533 201, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjosr.tjosr_152_21

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How to cite this article:
Boppanna SH, Simhachalam Kutikuppala L V. Can ocular biomarkers become game-changers in the prior diagnosis of various diseases?. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res 2022;60:134

How to cite this URL:
Boppanna SH, Simhachalam Kutikuppala L V. Can ocular biomarkers become game-changers in the prior diagnosis of various diseases?. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jul 2];60:134. Available from: https://www.tnoajosr.com/text.asp?2022/60/1/134/340356

Dear Editor,

For the past decade, the concept of “the eye as a window to brain” is increasingly being explored to grasp brain functioning in health and disease conditions. Combining deep imaging of ocular tomography with the analytical power of deep learning represents a frontier to reveal more about the kidney and broader cardiovascular health.

The retina (and/or the optic nerve) is the only part of the central nervous system (CNS) that is directly visible through ophthalmic examinations. It has been shown that, in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), disseminated multiple sclerosis, and cerebrovascular disorders, Parkinson's disease, stroke, efferent neuron disorders, and other neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory, or cerebrovascular disorders, there are disease-associated pathological or subclinical changes within the retina. Retinal changes may correlate with the severity of brain and systemic pathology and reflect identical pathogenesis.[1]

In AD, researchers observed abnormality in sight-associated retinal function. Specifically, rod-mediated inner retinal responses to dim light flashes were faster in diseased than in their wild-type controls. The observation could also be explained by impaired cholinergic neurotransmission that is also partly causative for the deterioration of memory in AD.[2]

Homology between the eye and the kidney suggests that noninvasive imaging of the retinal vessels can detect these microvascular alterations to target at-risk patients. Retinal vessel-derived metrics predict incident hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and disorder and increase these renal and cardiovascular risk stratification tools.

Ocular lesions, especially retinal lesions, are often the first manifestations of diseases such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2 where one can visualize choroidal nevi, retinal astrocytic hamartomata, choroidal hamartomata, epiretinal membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium are relatively more common. Genetically determined diseases such as oculocutaneous albinism (tyrosine negative and tyrosine positive), sickle cell disease, and thalassemia have associated retinal signs.

  Conclusion Top

Development of efficient, safe, and economic screening tools for CNS as well as systemic diseases is imperative since the diagnosis of those diseases is usually obtained during the advanced disease state when intrinsically satisfactory remedies are poorly effective. Hence, the ocular biomarkers could be the potential game-changers in the prior diagnosis of various diseases as mentioned above.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Colligris P, Perez de Lara MJ, Colligris B, Pintor J. Ocular manifestations of alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases: The prospect of the eye as a tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. J Ophthalmol 2018;2018:8538573.  Back to cited text no. 1
Singh AK, Verma S. Use of ocular biomarkers as a potential tool for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:555-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
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