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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 166-170

Dry eye disease in patients with alcohol use disorder

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, ACS Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Lily Daniel
No. 211, Annammal Road, Thiruverkadu Co Operative Nagar, Thiruverkadu, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjosr.tjosr_157_21

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Aim: To study the symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED) among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Subjects and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the out patient Department of Ophthalmology in a medical college in South India over a period of twelve months, on a total of 172 eyes of 86 participants with 43 cases of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 43 controls. The cases of AUD were 18 years or older and fulfilled the criteria of diagnosis of AUD as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders –5th edition (DSM-5). The controls were matched for age and sex with the cases. All cases and controls were subjected to the Ocular Surface Disease Index® (OSDI) questionnaire and Schirmer's test after assessment of their best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The cases were further assessed for tear breakup time (TBUT), fluorescein staining, and rose Bengal staining using slit lamp biomicroscopy followed by fundus examination. The Chi-square test, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval were calculated using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of cases was 45+/-11 years. Cases less than 40 years showed the highest proportion (44.2%) of DED with irritation being the most common symptom (24.4%). OSDI scores showed mild type of DED in 39.5% (P < 0.0001). Schirmer's indicated dry eyes in 38.3% (P < 0.0001) with OR of 12.1 in the right eye and 13.4 in the left eye. TBUT revealed marginal grade for dry eye in 44 eyes (51.2%) and definitive dry eye in 35 eyes (40.7%) In AUD, conjunctival and corneal staining with fluorescein were seen in 46 eyes (53.5%) with interpalpebral staining in 22 eyes (25.6%), inferior staining in 14 eyes (16.3%) and a combination of interpalpebral and inferior staining in 10 eyes (11.6%). Conclusion: Alcohol has a deleterious effect on the ocular surface and gives rise to DED. This implicates the necessity of regular ophthalmic screening including staining of the ocular surface to diagnose and treat DED in people with AUD especially in the age group between 18–40 years.

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