|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 175-182
The Basics of Scientific Writing
Thanuja Gopal Pradeep1, NS Murthy2, Deepthi R H1
1 Department of Ophthalmology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Division of Research and Patents, MS Ramiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||28-Nov-2021|
|Date of Decision||06-Mar-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||24-Mar-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Jun-2022|
Deepthi R H
Department of Ophthalmology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Writing a scientific article remains a challenge to many medical professionals. The importance of scientific writing is understood by many, but the process seems daunting. In this article, we attempt to embark upon the reader on the importance of publishing and the reasons to publish. We discuss the main elements that are essential to be included in a basic article. We enumerate how to organise thoughts and ideas and discuss the nuances that one needs to be aware of while writing a scientific article. It is a comprehensive article that helps the reader to understand the principles of scientific writing.
Keywords: Academic writing, publishing, research, scientific writing
|How to cite this article:|
Pradeep TG, Murthy N S, DeepthiR. The Basics of Scientific Writing. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res 2022;60:175-82
| Introduction|| |
The art of writing a scientific article requires training. It is an art that all academicians need to learn and master in order to progress in their careers. “Publish or Perish” is not an old age adage, it is very relevant to today's working. Any advance in the career depends on the amount of work any clinician has spent on research especially so if one intends to work in institutes. The need for scientific writing and expressing one's views in a simple manner understandable to the scientific community is very essential and has to be imparted to medical students during their training. The importance of scientific writing dawns on a clinician only after he completes his graduation where any institute, he wants to get in, looks for publications in each individual's curriculum vitae. For a person to advance in his career, to get into prestigious institutes and to advance from his current position, publications and the quality of publications are very important.
The importance of scientific writing may be understood by many but because of the lack of training one usually finds it time-consuming and clinicians tend to give it secondary importance in their clinical practice and patient care. The clinicians often complain about the lack of time to write papers. What clinicians need to understand is that medical -writing is an art and once mastered gives joy to the author as it rewards him for his diligent observation with peer recognition and on a more altruistic level, advances the medical knowledge.
Scientific writing is a genre where the emphasis remains on science, with words being merely tools for conveying information. This is a genre that has a very specific and narrow readership but a very important one. The readers of this particular genre are highly distinguished scientists whose sole purpose is to advance science. This genre requires the facts to be stated in a simple language that is understandable by clinicians all over the world by both English and non-English speaking individuals.
Good scientific writing has to ultimately lead to publications. This article helps you to understand the nuances of scientific writing and the basics needed to simplify this art so that one goes about writing a manuscript with confidence and ease. This article will also cover the basics of publishing the manuscript and finally lead to an accepted journal article.
| How to Write a Scientific Article?|| |
1. Introduction: The art of writing a scientific article requires training. It is an art that all academicians need to learn and master to progress in their careers. “Publish or Perish” is not an old age adage. It is very relevant to today's work. Any advance in the career depends on the amount of work any clinician has spent on research, especially if one intends to work in institutes. The need for scientific writing and expressing one's views in a simple manner understandable to the scientific community is essential. This knowledge has to be imparted to the medical students during their training. The importance of scientific writing dawns on a clinician only after he completes his graduation where any institute he wants to get in, look for publications in each individual's curriculum vitae. For a person to advance in his career, get into prestigious institutes, and advance from his current position, publications and publications' quality is paramount.
Scientific writing is a genre where the emphasis remains on science, with words being merely tools for conveying information—this is a genre with a specific and narrow readership but an important one. The readers of this particular genre are highly distinguished scientists whose sole purpose is to advance science. This genre requires the facts to be stated in a simple language that is understandable by clinicians worldwide by both English and non-English speaking individuals.
Good scientific writing has to lead to publications ultimately. This article helps one understand the nuances of scientific writing and the basics needed to simplify this art to write a manuscript with confidence and ease. This article will also cover the basics of publishing the manuscript and finally lead to an accepted journal article.
| Why Should One Publish?|| |
The three pillars of science are knowledge, method, and attitude. The growth of scientific knowledge is always incremental, where we add on to the past knowledge. For this, we must have a mechanism to disseminate and preserve knowledge. Any scientific publication's primary aim remains altruistic, but the second need, self-interest, is also essential because it helps an individual advance in his career. Both these should be mutually inclusive. The reasons for publishing can be many and vary for each individual depending on their personal goals. The common reasons for publication are as follows
- Promotion: Publications are an essential determinant in achieving promotions in an institution. One needs to be aware of institutional policies, which usually will be based on the National medical council guidelines. The individual aiming for promotion has to be coherent with all policies and aim to fulfill the criteria set by the individual institutions and Medical councils of the country. National Medical Commission (NMC) has specific guidelines for promotion, and one needs to be aware of them.
- Funding agency requirement: If one has availed funding from an external agency to conduct research, one would have commissioned such contracts before starting the project. Each of these agencies will have a mandatory number of publications to be engendered from the project. The researcher needs to be aware that only those with a high H index have a higher possibility of getting funding.
- For career advancement: High achievers would want to publish for their career advancement. Institutional policies need not bind academicians who aim to advance in their careers. They place the bar at a higher level for themselves and achieve peer-reviewed or high-impact journal publications.
- For professional development and status: If one is looking to forge ahead in scientific societies and committees, then the publications should be aimed at the journals issued by the respective societies to get visibility in compeers.
- Competing for awards/recognition in the scientific arena: Certain agencies rank and recognise individuals and institutions for their contributions to science. These awards are conferred based on an individual's achievements in science, contribution to the community, and teaching.
- To create awareness and communication in the general public: For the advancement in professional practice and publicity in general publications, the aim to publish will have to be in media that has a further outreach to the general public. The articles have to be published in local newspapers, general journals, and magazines. These types of media help in spreading awareness about diseases among the general public and also improve the individual's visibility in the community. This section will go beyond the scope of this article.
- Dissemination of scientific knowledge relating to newer diagnostic or therapeutic methods or better delivery care methods to the population can be informed to colleagues only through publication.
| What One Needs To Have Before One Starts Writing A Paper?|| |
- Organised data: If one has completed a study, the data must be organised in a systematic way to be able to use the statistical analysis software. It can be taken care of at the beginning of collecting data. Once one plans to do a study, collection and documentation become an integral part that must be revisited continuously during the study to get any meaningful data. If the data is ready, one should have completed the statistical analysis and be ready with the results and graphs, so it becomes easy to present the points.
- Literature review- It is essential to read the relevant articles even before one does research. As one goes about literature search, it is natural to get overwhelmed by the number of studies that are published. But one needs to know that we need only to include the relevant articles. Having a collection of innumerable articles and not being able to read all of them seems the first hurdle in writing the article. One needs to understand that the author is expected to have read the full-text articles, and referencing from abstracts is not encouraged.
- Plan for writing even before the start of the study. The intent to publish has to be present from the beginning of the study. When the publication is in mind, then even small details are not missed and recorded as one conducts the study. Suppose one has read articles relevant to the topic and understood the strengths and pitfalls of the topic then the individual will be better positioned to present his findings, and the necessary data will never be missed. One needs to write down points on which one wants to expand the paper. If one has prepared a synopsis/protocol at the beginning of the study, one can build upon it. A publication should be the final step of any study, and all steps from the beginning should be aimed at achieving it.
- Which journal one wants to publish also be borne in mind. It would help one look into each journal's recent archives and know the nature of articles published in them, as only articles that are in line with the objectives of a particular journal will have a chance of being published.
Search engines such as “Journalsearch,” “Journalfinder”, “ Mastersearch”, help one determine which journals their article is most suited for. If one types their title and abstract into the website, the search engine will suggest the 50 journals for which the manuscript is best suited. One needs to know what is the format of their intended journal before they start writing so that the job seems less daunting once completed.
- Who is the author? Authorship is a privilege and not a right. Authorship confers credit to the scientific works but also implies responsibilities and accountability for the published work. The International Journal of Medical Journal editors' have clearly defined an author and his roles and responsibilities. They recommend authorship based on the following four criteria:
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
The above-stated criteria clearly define an author, and all authors must fulfill all criteria. Those who do not fulfill all criteria can be acknowledged, but it is also vital that they should not be denied authorship if they fulfill all criteria. Some journals have added a contributor-ship document that identifies each author's role to avoid conflicts that may arise later on. The corresponding author takes on the responsibility of communicating with the journal for the publication process. He/She takes the responsibility of providing all the journal's administrative requirements and is available for the peer review process and responds to the editorial queries in a timely way.
Order of authors: When to decide the order of authors? Ideally, this has to be decided before one starts the study or starts writing the manuscript, as this avoids conflicts.
Number of authors: One also needs to know each journal's requirements and how many authors are permitted. For case reports and case series, the journals limit the number of authors to 4-5. For the original article, there is a limit of authors unless it is a multicentric study where the number of authors can be increased.
To publish an article, one needs to realise there will be many non-author contributions such as data entry, general supervision, administrative support, writing support, and language editing. These individuals can be acknowledged in the acknowledgment section.
2. Once all the above criteria are met, we move on to the details of writing an article.
| Organisation of the Paper|| |
Though we state that writing a paper is a creative process, scientific writing has specific rules and removes creativity. The established norms help the author concentrate on the scientific matter rather than the creative aspect of writing. The systematic organisation and presentation help the author present his facts clearly, logically, and without repetition. This systematic structure also helps the reader understand and navigate articles for relevant details quickly. There is a well-established structure that is accepted worldwide by all scientific journals. Most journals use the “IMRaD” format
M- Method (experiment, theory, design, model, materials)
D- Discussion and Conclusion
This section is the one that holds the interest of the reader. It has to be presented in the right way to capture the reader's attention. It sets the preamble for the whole paper. The Introduction should not be pervasive. Most journals set a limit to the number of pages of Introduction. Usually, the Introduction should not be more than one or one and a half pages. References must be added here and if one is planning to use abbreviations these have to be included in parenthesis so that the reader goes about reading the article without any difficulty.
Swales has very aptly described that the research-article Introduction moves through three phases:
- Establish a territory (what is the field of the work, why is this field important, what has already been done?), - Include this in the first paragraph. (past tense)
- Establish a niche (indicate a gap, raise a question, or challenge prior work in this territory) -identifying the limitations has to be included in the second paragraph (past and past perfect tense)
- Occupy that niche (outline the purpose and announce the present research; optionally summarise the results). Here one would want to write the aims and objectives that their study would address and the novelty that their study brings to the existing knowledge. It will be written in the third paragraph. (present perfect tense).
The Introduction has to flow from known findings on the topic to the gaps in the knowledge. The study and the novelty or value that the article adds to the present knowledge have to be clearly defined and expressed, which will interest the reader to continue reading the article.
The tense of writing has to be in the past tense, and as it moves to explain the novelty, one can use the present tense.
Materials and Methods
This is a section where one diligently describes each process undertaken through the study and the methods of analysis. This component interests other researchers if they plan to reproduce the same study. It has to guide other fellow researchers to emulate the study and be able to research the results for further validation of the study results.
This section depends on the scope of the article. If the article presents a novel procedure, then every step must be described. However, if standard procedures are used, then they need to be mentioned or referenced. Adding references to the procedure that is performed would be sufficient.
One needs to describe every procedure that is done to derive the result. One should not present results without mentioning them in the methods section. A well-written methods section helps the reader to assess the internal validity of particular research. Simultaneously, the study's external validity, i.e., if the study results can be extrapolated to a general population, also mandates a well-written method section. It helps other researchers repeat the study and validate the study results.
The method section usually begins with the first paragraph, which will describe the type of study:- retrospective, prospective, case-control, randomised control. The period during which the study was done has to be included. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study participants have to be included next. In a retrospective study, one has to include the number of participants, but the number of participants will be part of the results if it is a prospective study.
The second paragraph should include the institution's ethics committee approval. If not taken, the reason for the same has to be mentioned. The clinical trial registration number should be included in the case of a randomised control trial. The informed consent obtained by all participants has to be mentioned. Some journals request the institutional ethics committee number and the date issued. So, one has to refer to the intended journal instructions before writing this section.
The third paragraph should, in detail, list the questionnaire used, every data collected, the method of collection, and if there are any deviations from the standard accepted format, it has to be described and justified here. If done, laboratory investigations have to be described in detail, and depending on the scope of the article manufacturer's details have to be mentioned. If the study includes any drugs, the drugs' generic name must be mentioned and not the trade name. However, if one uses the trade name and any conflicts of interest or financial disclosures must be quoted. If any instrument is used, then the manufacturer's name and model name, and calibration must also be included.
The final paragraph will be about the statistical considerations. One has to elaborate sampling and analysis methods. The sample size estimation has to be included here; α and β errors, the level of significance, and the software used for analysis have to be mentioned. Suppose one is proficient in statistical methods and analysis. In that case, one may attempt to write this section by themselves, but if one solicits the help of an experienced statistician, it can be done, and the individual has to be acknowledged for their support.
This section's tense has to be written in the past tense and past imperfect tense when describing events occurring before the study.
It is the “Heart of the paper” around which the whole paper is organised. It is the section that draws the reader to the paper. The results strengthen or weaken the hypotheses that the researcher is trying to present. The results section elucidates all the results derived from the study and presents the data in a meaningful way for the reader to understand. Here, the author needs to use data, tables, and figures to present his results systematically. The author can get creative with his presentation in this section. One needs to present relevant data and be careful not to present incomplete information.
The results add meaning and interpretation to the raw data. They are expressed as statements and describe the data in a purposive and meaningful manner. This section has to be represented with clarity. One should not mention the procedures that have already been mentioned in the methods section. As repetition only frustrates the reader. It should also not include discussion, and one should not get carried away and try to describe or compare with other studies in this section.
There are three ways of presenting the results: The author needs to decide what suits his paper the most.
- Chronological way: This is the straightforward way and the methods that are first described accordingly to their results are described and discussed in a similar order. It is easy for the reader to understand, and also, if they need to refer, it is convenient.
- General to specific: This is the format used in clinical studies where the whole group's general data is presented and then data for each group is presented. In this method, primary results that are important are presented first, followed by secondary results that add to the understanding.
- Most to least important: If the order of data is not critical, then the author can present his data by highlighting the most important results first and presenting secondary data in subsequent paragraphs.
The judicious use of text, tables, and figures is a challenge to the author. Certain rules help the author present his data in the most impressive form. As a simple rule, if one presents three or fewer numbers, then a sentence can be used, but it is better to use tables if it is more than that. Tables are used when there are similar variables presented between groups. Large data is easier to understand when summarised as a table. One should take care not to repeat data represented in the tables as text. When presenting complex data figures are the best choice. They are used to show the patterns of data and improve understanding and locating the specific information rapidly. The author needs to place each element that he uses- table or figure, close to where it is first mentioned. Every journal will have a limited number of illustrations and tables that they allow, and this has to be borne in mind, and one should not get carried away and include too many figures or tables.
The results should be written in the past perfect tense.
| Discussion|| |
“The proof of the pudding,” as it is popularly called- is in this section that one explains the importance of his/her research. One presents the results, how they compare or contrast to other studies, what the study adds to the existing scientific knowledge, and whether they raise any new questions or open up an idea for new research.
The first paragraph of the discussion has to continue where the Introduction was left off. The discussion has to answer the questions raised in the introduction section and present one's results to answer these questions. The topics presented in the first or last paragraph are usually remembered most and hence the novel findings have to be presented in the first paragraph. The primary findings are only highlighted and not repeated here.
The middle section can go in a step-by-step or overview techniques. In the step-by-step technique, the author starts the paragraph with a topic sentence, and each paragraph addresses new topics in one step. In the overview technique, one introduces a topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph, and subsections transit from one to another as subtopics. The overview technique presents the discussion as a story and is easy to follow.
The authors need to understand that it is unnecessary to refer to all the published papers in the particular field, but only relevant papers need to be mentioned. The results have to be presented in the most plausible way to convince the reader results. When comparing the results to other studies, one should be fair and balanced. The author needs to give the necessary information to the reader to judge the value of the information for themselves. If the results are consistent with other studies, then the findings have to be stated briefly, but if there are any controversial results, one needs to highlight them and state the possible reasons. Unexpected results may show the direction for future results, and hence one needs to present their findings honestly.
The study's strengths and limitations need to be appreciated and presented in the penultimate paragraph of the discussion. No study is perfect, and the author has to acknowledge it. This section also helps future researchers formulate new research questions and continue the quest for scientific knowledge.
The conclusion section is the final paragraph, which summarises the main points and links them to the objectives. The conclusion has to state how the study answers the main questions addressed in the study. The author can make future research recommendations and present the final take-home message clearly and concisely.
Checklists- CARE, STROBE, CONSORT, PRISMA
While reporting case reports, observational studies, randomised trials and systematic reviews it is expected that the authors follow certain prescribed guidelines which are checklists and help in standardising the way in which data is presented.
CARE: CAse REport guidelines: TO report a case, there is a checklist called CARE checklist which when followed provides a complete and transparent presentation of data. This can be accessed from the EQUATOR NETWORK website. The EQUATOR Network | Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of Health Research (equator-network.org)
STROBE: Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology: This provides a 22 item checklist that enables the author to ensure high quality presentation. The guidelines only help in presenting the data systematically and is not a tool for validation of conduction of the study.
CONSORT: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials- This is an evidence-based, minimum set of requirements for reporting randomised trials. It consists of 25 item checklist and a flow diagram. The checklist helps the author in organising his data and presenting the design, analysis and interpretation while the flow diagram helps display the progress of participants through the trial.
PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: A group of 29 review authors came up with a checklist for reporting a systematic review or a meta- analysis. It includes 27 items that are deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review and meta- analyses.
There are many more checklists for reporting study protocols (SPIRIT/PRISMA-P) diagnostic and prognostic studies (STARD/TRIPOD) Clinical practice guidelines (AGREE/RIGHT), Qualitative research (SRQR, COREQ), quality improvement studies (SQUIRE). These can be accessed from the website of Equator network. (equator-network.org)
Though none of the above checklists are used for qualitative analysis of the paper, most journals accept manuscripts more readily when the authors follow these guidelines. Some journals insist on the checklist to be provided as it helps them to assess the manuscripts more diligently.
The title and abstract are the first to be read but they are the last to be written. After writing the whole paper, it becomes effortless to make a concise summary of the paper. The purpose of the title and abstract is to “sell” the paper. In this digital era, the title and abstract are the most commonly viewed part of any paper as they are readily available as do not require full access to journals. As Mack C. says, the title and abstract's purpose is matchmaking- they match the right paper to the right reader. The purpose of the paper is achieved when it reaches the right reader. If not, the paper's value will be lost, and the researcher's effort will seem meaningless.
The abstract is the most widely read part of the article and is readily accessible to everybody and hence has to be the most well-written part. Though it is a summary of the whole article, only important results have to be highlighted in the abstract. Most journals mandate that original articles need to have a structured abstract, and hence the author has to be aware of the journal's instructions and write accordingly. The word limit is another challenge that the author has to address. Within the given word limit the author needs to present the salient features that the article highlights to capture readers' attention. One will find it easier to write the abstract once the full paper is written. The aim of the study from the introduction section is written as the objectives. The materials and methods have to be concise, only highlighting the type of study and the number of cases included, and the results section should include the positive results. The take-home-message section of the conclusion can be written in the conclusion section of the abstract.
The title should be the last that the author writes. By the end of writing the article, the author will know the most important aspects of his article and will be able to articulate them better.
The last part is to be written but the first and maybe the only part to be read by readers. A well-written title not only captures the attention but encourages one to explore the article further. When a reader uses databases such as PUBMED/MEDLINE, titles that contain all the possible keywords are the one that gets retrieved the most and finally end up being cited the most. This signifies the importance of the title.
The title should include the critical, unique aspects of the paper which need to be highlighted, and it should include the keywords, the type or design of the study, and the population. One should also remember that the title has to be concise and not too long to be comprehensible to the reader.
The importance of references lies in the fact that one identifies and acknowledges research done in the field and provides the source of one's information, thus validating the hypothesis that one works on. It is vital to cite all the relevant articles, but at the same time, one needs to remember that all articles that one adds to the references have to be read in full text, and only then be cited.
Number of references: How many references should one cite? This is a question that troubles every beginner. Each journal has a limit on the number of references that one can include in their article. It is usually below ten for a case report, and for an original article, they are around 25-30. For a review article, the numbers may be more. Most journals accept recent publications, preferably those within the recent ten years. Very old publications may not be relevant to include. With the medical field's advancement, the author needs to be aware of his/her particular field's collective knowledge and add something new to existing knowledge and not just to the bulk of knowledge present. One needs to be aware that not necessarily a massive list of references means higher chances of publication.
One need not give references for commonly accepted paradigms. Suppose one is trying to cite authors, who themselves have cited somebody else's work, for a particular statement that they have made. In that case, one should look into the primary source for the correct information and cite the primary article and exclude intermediate papers. One should not quote from abstracts and internet sites. Textbooks and guidelines have to be cited accordingly.
Referencing styles: Most journals have a necessary referencing style that they accept. One has to adhere to these guidelines, or else the article gets returned in the initial stages, quoting technical details. Nowadays, with many reference managers available -paid or free (eg. Zotero, Mendley, End-note), this is something that the author can easily do. Reference managers are a must for every author. It will benefit the author if they get familiar with these reference managers before writing articles to make writing a pleasure. If not, adding the references and redrafting becomes an arduous task and marks as a significant deterrent in writing articles.
It will be necessary for a beginner to note essential points that one wants to include in a particular article. As one starts to read all the articles, the memory may fail when they read a relevant point and will end up reading the same article multiple times. This will make the process of writing seem daunting. Hence, it is essential to organise the information in one's mind and note it down along with the reference, which will make the task easier.
Writing an article in a simple language is vital to reach a broader readership. A non-English speaking reader should be able to understand easily what is written. Most authors falter in the beginning using many adjectives and writing the article like literary material. They have to overcome this tendency and limit it to simple terms as that is the basis of the medical writing genre. One has to make sure that they use the correct tense, which is usually in the past and past perfect tense and only in the conclusion section one may use the present tense, but no future tense has to be used. English-grammar correcting software is available, which is partly free and some paid (eg. Grammarly). They can be used to correct the grammar of the written matter.
For those who have access to language corrections, this task may seem easy. However, for those who do not have access to help in English writing, it is essential to be diligent and avoid writing mistakes. Even an excellent study with a badly written content cannot carry its message across to the readers and will be readily rejected by journals. A few drafts and guidance by a mentor will be of utmost to perfect this art for a beginner.
After writing the article, it will be useful to go through a plagiarism check software. Most journals nowadays run every article that they receive through plagiarism software. If there are many sentences directly taken from other articles, they will be rejected at the initial stages. So how does one avoid using the same sentences that are used in other articles? When one reads an article, and if he/she reads a critical line that is relevant, it becomes difficult to think of a different way to explain the same idea. This can be overcome by summarising the idea expressed in ones' own words. It would be useful if the author takes time and writes the summary a few minutes after reading a particular finding as he/she would be able to put it in new words. This would avoid any plagiarism issues. A writer needs to write the article in his own words and avoid the “COPY, PASTE” mode of working an article. [Table 1] simplifies the structure of a scientific paper and is given below
|Table 1: The organization of the paper writing has been simplified in the following table|
Click here to view
| Conclusion|| |
To summarise, one needs to know that research article writing is the most satisfying job. A manuscript well-written and once published as an article gives a sense of satisfaction that all scientists should aim for. At an altruistic level, research paper writing is essential to strengthen scientific knowledge and advance science. We all are bound by the Hippocratic oath “I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.”. One should realise that it is not only for one's career advancement that one publishes his research or clinical experience but research and scientific writing is essential to advance scientific understanding and help humanity by sharing medical knowledge.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
In order to achieve this, one has to be well oriented to the process of writing. This article will address issues that are concerned with academic writing
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